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Therapsida

Mammals and extinct relatives

Biarmosuchia [Extinct] 
Eotitanosuchia [Extinct] 
Dinocephalia [Extinct] 
Anomodontia [Extinct] 
Theriodontia 
     Gorgonopsia [Extinct] 
     Therocephalia [Extinct] 
     Cynodontia 
          Diviniidae [Extinct] 
          Procynosuchidae [Extinct] 
          Galesauridae [Extinct] 
          Thrinaxodontidae [Extinct] 
          Cynognathidae [Extinct] 
          gomphodonts [Extinct] 
          Chiniquodontidae [Extinct] 
          Probainognathidae [Extinct] 
          Tritheledontidae [Extinct]   (Ictidosauria)
          Mammalia 
Classification after Hopson 1991.

Containing clade(s): Synapsida


Table of Contents

References

References

Ahlberg, P. E.  1993.  Therapsids and transformation series. 
          Nature 361:596-596.

Carroll, R.L.  1988.  Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. 
          W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Cluver, M.A. 1978. Fossil reptiles of the South African Karoo. 
          Cape Town, South African Museum.

Colbert, E.H. and J.W. Kitching.  1977.  Triassic cynodont reptiles 
          from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2611:1-30.

Forey, P. L.  1993. Therapsids and transformation series.  Nature 
          361:596-597.

Fox, R. C., G. P. Youzwyshyn, and D. W. Krause.  1992.  Post-jurassic 
          mammal-like reptile from the paleocene.  Nature 358:233-235.

Fox, R. C., G. P. Youzwyshyn, and D. W. Krause.  1992.  Paleocene 
          therapsid debate.  Nature 360:540-540.

Gee, H.  1992.  By their teeth ye shall know them.  Nature 360:529-529.

Grine, F. E.  1997.  Dinocephalians are not anomodonts.  Journal 
          of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:177-183.

Hopson, J. A.  1991.  Systematics of the nonmammalian Synapsida 
          and implications for patterns of evolution in synapsids. 
          Pages 635-693 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods. 
          (H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb, eds.)  Comstock Publishing 
          Associates, Ithaca and London.

Hopson, J. A.  1995.  Patterns of evolution in the manus and 
          pes of non-mammalian therapsids.  Journal of Vertebrate 
          Paleontology 15:615-639.

Hopson J. A. and H. R. Barghusen.  1986.  An analysis of therapsid 
          relationships.  Pages 83-106 in The Ecology and Biology 
          of Mammal-like Reptiles (P. D. M. Nicholas Hotton III, 
          J. J. Roth, and E. C. Roth, eds.)  Smithsonian Institution 
          Press, Washington.

Hotton, N. III.  1991.  The nature and diversity of synapsids: 
          prologue to the origin of mammals.  Pages 598-634 in 
          Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods.  (H.-P. 
          Schultze and L. Trueb, eds.)  Comstock Publishing Associates, 
          Ithaca and London.

Kemp, T. S. 1982. Mammal-like reptiles and the origin of mammals. 
          New York, Academic Press.

King, G. M.  1988.  Anomodontia.  Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology 
          Part 17C.  Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

Laurin, M. and R. R. Reisz.  1990.  Tetraceratops is the oldest 
          known therapsid. Nature 345:249-250.

Laurin, M. and R. R. Reisz.  1996.  The osteology and relationships 
          of Tetraceratops insignis, the oldest known therapsid. 
          Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:95-102.

Li, J. L., B. S. Rubidge, and Z. W. Cheng.  1996.  A primitive 
          anteosaurid dinocephalian from China - Implications 
          for the distribution of earliest therapsid faunas. 
          South African Journal of Science 92:252-253.

Martinez, R. N., C. L. May, and C. A. Forster.  1996.  A new 
          carnivorous cynodont from the Ischigualasto formation 
          (late Triassic, Argentina), with comments on eucynodont 
          phylogeny.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:271-284.

Modesto, S., B. Rubidge, and J. Welman.  1999.  The most basal 
          anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in 
          the evolution of the anomodonts.  Proceedings of the 
          Royal Society of London Series B 266:331-337.

Novacek, M. J.  1992.  Wandering across time.  Nature 358:192.

Olson, E. C.  1986.  Relationships and ecology of the early therapsids 
          and their predecessors.  Pages 47-60 in The Ecology 
          and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles (P. D. M. Nicholas 
          Hotton III, J. J. Roth, and E. C. Roth, eds.)  Smithsonian 
          Institution Press, Washington.

Rubidge, B. S. and J. A. Hopson.  1996.  A primitive anomodont 
          therapsid from the base of the Beaufort Group (Upper 
          Permian) of South Africa.  Zoological Journal of the 
          Linnean Society 117:115-139.

Rubidge, B. S. and J. A.VandenHeever.  1997.  Morphology and 
          systematic position of the dinocephalian Styracocephalus 
          platyrhynchus.  Lethaia 30:157-168.

Sidor, C. A. and J. A. Hopson.  1998.  Ghost lineages and "mammalness": 
          assessing the temporal pattern of character acquisition 
          in the Synapsida.  Paleobiology 24:254-273.

Sigogneau-Russel, D.  1989.  Theriodontia I. Encyclopedia of 
          Paleoherpetology Part 17B/I.  Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

Sues, H. D.  1986.  Locomotion and body form in early therapsids 
          (Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia, and Therocephalia).  Pages 
          61-70 in The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles 
          (P. D. M. Nicholas Hotton III, J. J. Roth, and E. C. 
          Roth, eds.)  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Sues, H. D.  1992.  No paleocene mammal-like reptile.  Nature 
          359:278-278.


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